馮雪松:尋找方大曾,沒有終點

編者按:今年是“盧溝橋事變”80周年。1937年7月7日,日軍在北平附近挑起盧溝橋事變,中日戰爭全面爆發。作為首個報道“七七事變”的中國記者,方大曾在發表多篇前線報道后,在河北一帶失聯,年僅25歲。1999年,中國記者馮雪鬆開始追蹤采寫方大曾的歷程,而後的18年裡,他用大量資料逐漸拼接出一個鮮活的方大曾。兩位年輕的新聞工作者,相隔了63年,卻在歷史的安排下站在了一起。找尋方大曾之路是對民族歷史的鈎沉發微,也是中國記者職業精神的彰顯。


文/楊雲倩

by Yang Yunqian

2016年12月10日早上8點,中國知名電視工作者、紀錄片導演馮雪松從北京東五環的家趕到了西南六環的北京工商大學良鄉校區。這是“方大曾校園行”第14站的落腳點,也是2016年最後一站。

At 8 o’clock on the morning of December 12, 2016, having traversed the whole of Beijing City, Feng Xuesong, a TV producer and documentary director, finally arrived at the Liangxiang Campus of Beijing Technology and Business University. It was the 14th leg of the campaign “Fang Dazeng on Campus,” and also the final leg of 2016.

“方大曾校園行”是馮雪松發起的公益活動,計劃從2015年9月到2017年7月(“盧溝橋事變”80周年,方大曾誕辰105周年紀念日)期間走入中國20所大學,向中國大學生們重現方大曾的命運和那段國家危亡的歷史。

Initiated by Feng Xuesong, “Fang Dazeng on Campus” is a charity event, which aims to visit 20 Chinese universities to display Fang Dazeng’s life and China’s history in his times. The tour began in September 2015 and will run until July 2017, the end date marking both the 80th anniversary of the Lugou Bridge Incident (also known as the Marco Polo Bridge Incident), launched by Japan in July 1937, and also the 105th anniversary of the birth of Fang Dazeng.

▲2016年12月10日,“方大曾校園行”來到北京工商大學良鄉校區。(圖/王蘊聰)

從1999年底至今,馮雪松一直在以各種方式“尋找方大曾”。搜查資料、尋訪故人、重走方大曾通訊報道中提及的最後路線,尋找與方大曾有關的一切線索,幾乎完成了一個人類學研究者所做的工作。馮雪松說:“尋找方大曾是我職業生涯里最長的一個選題,當然,如果沒有他的下落,這件事還是要持續下去的。”

Since the end of 1999, Feng has been “looking for Fang Dazeng” in all kinds of ways. He has looked up historical documents, visited Fang’s old friends and returned to the last places mentioned in reports by Fang. Feng has not missed anything about Fang and has done almost biographical research on him. “Looking for Fang has been the most time-consuming task of my career,” claims Feng. “I won’t stop until I find him.”


為何尋找方大曾?

Why Look for Fang?

1937年7月7日,日本在盧溝橋發動全面侵華戰爭。三天後,25歲的方大曾背着相機趕到盧溝橋。8月1日,署名“小方”、長達7000字的通訊《盧溝橋抗戰記》刊登在中國共產黨創辦於1934年的雜誌《世界知識》上,這是第一篇以圖文形式向世界介紹盧溝橋戰地情況的通訊。“小方”方大曾成為“盧溝橋事變”報道第一人。

On July 7, 1937, Japan began its fullscale invasion of China by launching the Lugou Bridge Incident, on the outskirts of Beijing. Three days later, Fang, then 25 years old, rushed to the battlefield with his camera. On August 1, as fighting against the Japanese aggressors continued on Lugou Bridge, a 7,000-word article under his pen name “Xiao Fang” was published in World Affairs, a magazine founded by the Communist Party of China in 1934. This was the first article to cover the battle with both text and pictures, making Fang the first correspondent ever to report on the Lugou Bridge Incident.

1936年綏遠抗戰爆發,作為中外新聞學社攝影記者的方大曾到達前線,留下多篇攝影作品和文字通訊的報道。這些通訊報道文筆流暢、觀察細緻,配以大量新聞照片,留下了不少珍貴的戰場圖文資料。1937年9月30日,方大曾在《大公報》發表《平漢線北段的變化》,此後再無音訊。

In 1936, when Japanese troops attacked China’s Suiyuan region, Fang, then a photo correspondent with the China and Foreign Journalism Society, contributed a number of news photos and articles from the frontlines. The articles, with their many photos, showed skillful writing and close observations, creating precious records of the Suiyuan battlefield. However, Fang went missing after his last battlefield report on Ta Kung Pao on September 30, 1937.

▲綏遠抗戰爆發,騎馬奔赴前線的方大曾。

1999年,馮雪松無意間在辦公室發現一紙中國攝影協會邀請合編方大曾作品成書的傳真,“中國的羅伯特·卡特”“神秘失蹤”等詞強烈吸引了他,自此開始“尋找方大曾”。

In 1999, in his office, Feng Xuesong stumbled across a fax note from the China Photographers Association, asking if they could co-compile Fang’s works into a book. Words such as “China’s Robert Capa” and “mysterious disappearance” on the note caught Feng’s attention. It was at that moment that Feng embarked on his journey of “looking for Fang Dazeng.”

從方大曾的胞妹方澄敏那兒,馮雪松找到了方大曾拍攝的837張底片,看到了他用鏡頭記錄的那些珍貴歷史時刻。被這些照片吸引,馮雪鬆開始在國家圖書館一本本翻找1934年至1937年間的報紙雜誌,花了四個半月時間,找到了方大曾撰寫的通訊《盧溝橋抗戰記》《奮勇殺敵的二十九軍》《集寧防空演習》《日軍炮火下之宛平》等文章和照片,方大曾的戰地足跡開始隱約可循。

Feng went to Fang Chengmin, the younger sister of Fang Dazeng, who provided him with 837 photos taken by her brother. Intrigued by the precious historical moments recorded by Fang, Feng began to look into the periodicals and newspapers from between 1934 and 1937 stored in the National Library of China. It took Feng four months to find Fang’s articles and pictures in these publications, including Fighting against the Japanese Aggressors on Lugou Bridge, The 29th Army: Fighting for Our Country, Air Raid Drill in Jining, and Wanping County Under the Gunfire of Japanese Invaders. From then on, more and more traces of Fang’s work as a war corre- spondent gradually emerged.

隨後,馮雪松扛着設備,從河北保定、石家莊到山西太原、大同等這些方大曾活動過的地方按圖索驥。八個多月後,馮雪松訪問了百餘位戰爭親歷者、專家、學者,拍攝了40小時資料素材。2000年11月8日是新中國首個記者節,紀錄片《尋找方大曾》當天在中央電視台播出。

Later, Feng visited various places Fang had once frequented, including cities like Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, and Datong. Within eight months, Feng interviewed around 100 civilians who had experienced the Chinese People’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, as well as scholars and specialists, and filmed more than 40 hours of footage. On November 8, 2000, the first Journalists’ Day since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Feng’s documentary Looking for Fang Dazeng was broadcast on China Central Television.

▲馮雪松(右)和他的劇組成員完成了紀錄片《尋找方大曾》的最後錄製。

通過拍攝紀錄片,馮雪松越來越覺得,方大曾身上閃耀着新聞理想、專業素養、愛國情懷的光芒,尋找方大曾的價值不可低估。此後十多年,馮雪松一直搜查資料、尋訪故人、重走方大曾通訊報道中提及的最後路線,尋找與方大曾有關的一切線索。

While filming the documentary, Feng uncovered more evidence of Fang’s valuable qualities: his vision of news, his professionalism and his patriotism. In the decade that followed, Feng searched for information and friends of Fang, and retraced the final steps mentioned in Fang’s news reports to seek every possible clue connected to him.

2014年,馮雪松將方大曾的珍貴資料和自己的尋訪經歷整理成《方大曾:消失與重現》一書出版,中國新聞史學界泰斗方漢奇先生高度評價了這本書:“馮雪松的這部專著,把湮沒了80多年的一位傑出的新聞工作者、攝影記者方大曾推到了歷史的前台,讓他的名字開始為公眾所知曉,這是對中國新聞事業史人物研究和中國戰地新聞攝影史研究的一大貢獻。”

In 2014, Feng Xuesong compiled the historical materials he had found, along with his experiences from the search, into the book Fang Dazeng: Disappearance and Reappearance. “Feng’s book reveals the stories of Fang Dazeng, a distinguished journalist and photographer who had been buried in oblivion for over 80 years,” says Fang Hanqi, a leading Chinese scholar of news history. “Making his name known to the public is a great contribution to the research on China’s history of journalism and war photography.”


往事並不如煙

The Memory Won’t Fade Away

方大曾消失前已頗有名氣,但隨着他的失蹤、再加上時代動蕩,方大曾和他的作品成了如煙往事。在半個世紀以後出版的《中國攝影史》里,有關他的篇幅只有一百多字。近年來,隨着馮雪松的多年尋找,方大曾的人物形象才一點點豐滿起來。

Fang was famous before he vanished, but his disappearance, combined with the turbulence of the time, drowned out both him and his works. A major publication on the history of China’s photography includes just a 100-word description of him. Thanks to Feng’s search over recent years, public knowledge of Fang’s life has been enriched.

方大曾無疑是一位優秀的戰地攝影記者,但在戰地攝影之前,方大曾也曾帶着他珍視的相機,在天津、山西等地留下了許多百姓生活影像。他在攝影作品中注入對勞動者、底層民眾的關注和熱忱,同樣值得關注。

Fang was an excellent war correspondent and photographer. But before turning to battlefields, he once recorded people’s lives in Tianjin City and Shanxi Province with his camera. His attention to ordinary laborers and underprivileged people is also of significance.

那些被他定格的畫面中,有衚衕口的人力車夫、衣衫襤褸的百姓、碼頭的縴夫,也有以仰視視角拍攝的四個笑容燦爛的孩子,這些圖片不僅讓人們看到了上世紀二三十年代滿城烽煙下百姓的點滴生活,也讓人們看到了他與被拍攝對象之間的平等和信任。

The figures seen through his lens include rickshaw pullers at the entrance of a hutong, local people in ragged clothes, boat trackers at a wharf, and laughing kids. Those pictures show not only the wartime lives of people in the 1920s and 1930s, but also a trust and equality between the subjects and the photographer.

▲方大曾的部分攝影作品。

2006年,方大曾的家屬將他遺留下來的、經過多年艱難保存的837張原版底片無償捐獻給中國國家博物館收藏;2015年,在《抗戰與文藝:紀念抗日戰爭勝利70周年館藏文物系列展》中,方大曾的戰場攝影作品作為其中一部分進入公眾視野。

In 2006, Fang’s relatives donated his 837 surviving original photographic plates to the National Museum of China. In 2015, Fang’s photographs of the battlefields were exhibited in the museum to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression.

在中國攝影史上,為中國留下珍貴影像的大多是外國人——法國著名攝影家亨利·卡蒂埃-布列松(HENRI CARTIER-BRESSON)、馬克·呂布等,中國攝影家的缺位是一種莫大遺憾。方大曾的出現,讓越來越多人對中國攝影有了底氣。以當時中國攝影的條件來看,方大曾幾乎是憑直覺在攝影作品中灌注了豐富的情趣和悲天憫人的情懷,在經意與不經意之間留住了他的時代。

In the history of Chinese photography, many of the most precious images were taken by foreign photographers, such as famous French photographers Henri Cartier-Bresson and Marc Riboud. The absence of Chinese photographers has always been a pity. But Fang’s return to prominence fills this blank. Despite the poor conditions of his times, Fang intuitively injected a rich sense of empathy and a great deal of fun into his works, and whether intentionally or accidentally, created a record of his times.

2014年,隨着《方大曾:消失與重現》一書的出版,學界、業界引起了一波延續幾年的“方大曾熱”。中國記者協會舉辦“馮雪松追蹤采寫方大曾事迹”座談會;方大曾紀念室落成河北保定;以及“方大曾校園行”讓越來越多的高校學子深受影響……下一步,馮雪松的計劃還有很多,包括將方大曾收入《中國大百科全書》、建立方大曾基金、設置“方大曾獎”鼓勵年輕新聞人、參與制作關於方大曾的話劇等。

In the years since the publication of the book Fang Dazeng: Disappearance and Reappearance in 2014, a “Fang Dazeng” craze has spread through China’s academic and media circles, with various events organized to remember and study him. A symposium on Feng Xuesong’s tracing and collection of Fang’s stories was held by the All-China Journalists Association; the Fang Dazeng Memorial was established in Baoding, Hebei Province; and the “Fang Dazeng on Campus” publicity campaign has been started, influencing an increasing number of college students. Still, Feng has more plans, such as adding Fang Dazeng into the Encyclopedia of China, setting up a Fang Dazeng Fund, establishing the Fang Dazeng Award to encourage young journalists, and adapting Fang Dazeng’s stories into a drama.


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